Guide Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis: Acidic and Basic Reagents

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Handbook of reagents for organic synthesis reagents for heteroarene synthesis

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Spurred by the desire to make chemistry a sustainable and "greener" technology, the field of organocatalysis has grown to become one of the most important areas in synthetic organic chemistry. Let us have a look of the following big block, which is made by assembling several small blocks Fig 4. You could easily see that the large block could be broken down in different ways and then reassembled to give the same original block.

Now let us try and extend the same approach for the synthesis of a simple molecule. In the above analysis we have attempted to develop three ways of disconnecting the six membered ring. Have we thus created three pathways for the synthesis of cyclohexane ring?

Do such disconnections make chemical sense? The dots in the above structures could represent a carbonium ion, a carbanion, a free radical or a more complex reaction such as a pericyclic reaction or a rearrangement.

Applying such chemical thinking could open up several plausible reactions. Let us look into path b, which resulted from cleavage of one sigma bond. An anionic cyclisation route alone exposes several candidates as suitable intermediates for the formation of this linkage. The above analysis describes only three paths out of the large number of alternate cleavage routes that are available. An extended analysis shown below indicates more such possibilities Fig 4.

Each such intermediate could be subjected to further disconnection process and the process continued until we reach a reasonably small, easily available starting materials. This would depend not only on the number of steps involved in the synthesis, but also on the type of strategy followed. When each disconnection process leads to only one feasible intermediate and the process proceeds in this fashion. On the other hand, when an intermediate could be disconnected in two or more ways leading to different intermediates, branching occurs in the plan.

The processes could be continued all the way to SMs. In such routes different branches of the synthetic pathways converge towards an intermediate. Such schemes are called Convergent Syntheses. The flow charts shown below Fig 4. The situation becomes more complex when you consider the possibility of unwanted isomers generated at different steps of the synthesis. The overall yield drops down considerably for the synthesis of the right isomer. Reactions that yield single isomers Diastereospecific reactions in good yields are therefore preferred.

Some reactions like the Diels Alder Reaction generate several stereopoints points at which stereoisomers are generated simultaneously in one step in a highly predictable manner. Such reactions are highly valued in planning synthetic strategies because several desirable structural features are introduced in one step. Where one pure enantiomer is the target, the situation is again complex. In such cases, it is desirable to separate the optical isomers as early in the route as possible, along the synthetic route.

We would discuss this aspect after we have understood the logic of planning syntheses. Given these parameters, you could now decide on the most efficient route for any given target.

Potassium Hydroxide

Molecules of interest are often more complex than the plain cyclohexane ring discussed above. They may have substituents and functional groups at specified points and even specific stereochemical points. Construction of a synthetic tree should ideally accommodate all these parameters to give efficient routes. Let us look into a slightly more complex example shown in Fig 4. The ketone 4. Unlike the plain cyclohexane discussed above, the substitution pattern and the keto- group in this molecule impose some restrictions on disconnection processes.

Cleavage a: This route implies attack of an anion of methylisopropylketone on a bromo-component. Cleavage b: This route implies simple regiospecific methylation of a larger ketone that bears all remaining structural elements. Cleavage c: This route implies three different possibilities.

Route C-1 envisages an acylonium unit, which could come from an acid halide or an ester. Route C-2 implies an umpolung reaction at the acyl unit. Route C-3 suggests an oxidation of a secondary alcohol, which could be obtained through a Grignard-type reaction.


Cleavage d: This implies a Micheal addition. Each of these routes could be further developed backwards to complete the synthetic tree. These are just a few plausible routes to illustrate an important point that the details on the structure would restrict the possible cleavages to some strategic points. Notable contributions towards planning organic syntheses came from E. These and several related presentations on this topic should be taken as guidelines. They are devised after analyzing most of the known approaches published in the literature and identifying a pattern in the logic.

They need not restrict the scope for new possibilities. Some of the important strategies are outlined below. When a synthetic chemist looks at the given Target, he should first ponder on some preliminary steps to simplify the problem on hand. Is the molecule polymeric? See whether the whole molecule could be split into monomeric units, which could be coupled by a known reaction.

This is easily seen in the case of peptides, nucleotides and organic polymers. This could also be true to other natural products. In molecules like C-Toxiferin 1 4. In several other cases, a deeper insight is required to identify the monomeric units, as is the case with Usnic acid 4. In the case of the macrolide antibiotic Nonactin 4. The overall structure has S4 symmetry and is achiral even though assembled from chiral precursors.

Is a part of the structure already solved? Critical study of the literature may often reveal that the same molecule or a closely related one has been solved. Woodward synthesized 4. The same intermediate compound 4. Such strategies reduce the time taken for the synthesis of new drug candidates. These strategies are often used in natural product chemistry and drug chemistry.

Once the preliminary scan is complete, the target molecule could be disconnected at Strategic Bonds. For the purpose of bond disconnection, Corey has suggested that the structure could be classified according to the sub-structures generated by known chemical reactions. The structure of the target could be such that the Retron and the corresponding Transforms could be easily visualized and directly applied.

In some cases, the Transforms or the Retrons may not be obvious. In several syntheses, transformations do not simplify the molecule, but they facilitate the process of synthesis.

For example, a keto- group could be generated through modification of a -CH-N O 2 unit through a Nef reaction. A few such transforms are listed below, along with the nomenclature suggested by Corey Fig 4. A Rearrangement Reaction could be a powerful method for generating suitable new sub-structures.