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Such financial and tax engineering blurs traditional FDI statistics and makes it difficult to understand genuine economic integration. Luxembourg and the Netherlands host nearly half. Why and how does this handful of tax havens attract so much phantom FDI?


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In some cases, it is a deliberate policy strategy to lure as much foreign investment as possible by offering lucrative benefits—such as very low or zero effective corporate tax rates. Even if the empty corporate shells have no or few employees in the host economy and do not pay corporate taxes, they still contribute to the local economy by buying tax advisory, accounting, and other financial services, as well as by paying registration and incorporation fees.

For the tax havens in the Caribbean, these services account for the main share of GDP, alongside tourism. In Ireland, the corporate tax rate has been lowered substantially from 50 percent in the s to These tactics achieve even lower tax rates or avoid taxes altogether. This strategy may be helpful to Ireland, but it erodes the tax bases in other economies. The global average corporate tax rate was cut from 40 percent in to about 25 percent in , indicating a race to the bottom and pointing to a need for international coordination. This growth is unique to FDI.

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According to Lane and Milesi-Ferretti , FDI positions have grown faster than world GDP since the global financial crisis, whereas cross-border positions in portfolio instruments and other investments have not. While phantom FDI is largely hosted by a few tax havens, virtually all economies—advanced, emerging market, and low-income and developing—are exposed to the phenomenon.


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Most economies invest heavily in empty corporate shells abroad and receive substantial investments from such entities, with averages across all income groups exceeding 25 percent of total FDI. Investments in foreign empty shells could indicate that domestically controlled multinationals engage in tax avoidance.

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Similarly, investments received from foreign empty shells suggest that foreign-controlled multinationals try to avoid paying taxes in the host economy. Globalization creates new challenges for macroeconomic statistics. Today, a multinational company can use financial engineering to shift large sums of money across the globe, easily relocate highly profitable intangible assets, or sell digital services from tax havens without having a physical presence.

These phenomena can hugely impact traditional macroeconomic statistics—for example, inflating GDP and FDI figures in tax havens. Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Cart.


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    Very good plus in very good dust jacket. Photographs, illustrations, notes, bibliography, index. A comprehensive study of the historical, political, social, and economic development of the Third World since the fifteenth century.

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    Very Good. May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. May be ex-library. Morrow, hardback book and dust jacket in near fine condition,first edition stated. Morrow, Harper Perennial. Used - Good. Ships from the UK. Former Library book. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. Your purchase also supports literacy charities. Used book in very good condition.

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